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Iraq is a nation in Western Asia, flanked by Turkey toward the north, Iran toward the east, Kuwait toward the southeast, Saudi Arabia toward the south, Jordan toward the southwest, and Syria toward the west. The capital, and biggest city, is Baghdad. The primary ethnic gatherings are Arabs and Kurds; others incorporate Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, and Kawliya.Around 95% of the nation's 36 million natives are Shia or Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, and Mandeanism likewise present.

Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf and includes the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain extend, and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two noteworthy streams, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab close to the Persian Gulf. These streams furnish Iraq with huge measures of prolific land.

The district between the Tigris and Euphrates streams, generally known as Mesopotamia, is frequently alluded to as the support of civilisation. It was here that humankind initially started to peruse, compose, make laws, and live in urban communities under a sorted out government—strikingly Uruk, from which "Iraq" is inferred. The territory has been home to progressive civilisations since the sixth thousand years BC. Iraq was the focal point of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian realms. It was additionally part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, and Ottoman realms.

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